The paper considers institutional models that define the macroeconomic policies for real sector financing as well as the R&D financing serving further as a technological base for real sector development in various nation-states. The hypothesis is tested that two institutional models in these spheres could be singled out, so called "a state as the main investor" and "a state as the regulator". To check this hypothesis, data about the 20-year dynamics of financing in Russia (and China) and in the USA are used. Institutional matrices theory, or X- and Y-theory (Kirdina, 2012) is used to explain the differences. In this regard, a reflection of the investment characteristics in national statistics of the two countries due to institutional differences is also discussed.
Svetlana Kirdina. "Economic Policy For Real Sector And R&D Financing: Basic Institutional Models." Montenegrin Journal of Economics. vol. 9, no. 4, 2013, p. 39-52
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